Requirements of Vacuum System

Vacuum Environment on Earth

In terms of the atmospheric pressure of the earth, the vacuum environment is usually obtained by pumping air into a certain closed space. The earlier equipment for pumping is called a vacuum pump with s a relatively low pumping speed and a small degree of limit vacuum, which makes it difficult to meet the needs of production and scientific trails. Afterward, a series of vacuum pumps with different mechanisms were created, and the pumping speed and the limit vacuum were spontaneously improved. For instance, the pumping rate of cryopump can reach 60,000 liters per second, and the limit vacuum can realize one hundred-billionth of a Pa order of magnitude.

Specific factors

In order to guarantee an accessible and working-required vacuum system, besides equipping with appropriate vacuum pumps with good pumping performance, internal components also have to undergo serious leak detection to eliminate the venerable hole which could destroy the vacuum condition. For the low (coarse) vacuum, medium vacuum and high vacuum system, an air pressure leak detection is often applied.
For the ultra-high one, after employing general leak detection methods, a leak detection instrument with higher sensitivity is demanded.

A vacuum system is a set of components designed to create, maintain, and control a vacuum environment. It’s used in various applications, including industrial processes, scientific research, and consumer appliances. Here are the fundamental requirements for a vacuum system:

  1. Vacuum Pump:
    • The heart of the vacuum system, responsible for creating and maintaining the vacuum.
    • Different types of vacuum pumps are used depending on the required vacuum level (e.g., rotary vane pumps, turbomolecular pumps, diaphragm pumps, etc.).
  2. Pressure Measurement Instrumentation:
    • Pressure gauges or transducers are essential for monitoring and controlling the vacuum level.
    • Types of gauges may include Pirani gauges, thermocouple gauges, ionization gauges, etc., depending on the desired vacuum range.
  3. Vacuum Chambers:
    • Enclosures designed to contain the process and maintain the vacuum level.
    • Made of materials compatible with the application, often stainless steel or other non-reactive materials.
  4. Seals and Gaskets:
    • Vital for maintaining the vacuum by preventing air leaks into the system.
    • Made of materials compatible with the desired vacuum level and process conditions.
  5. Valves:
    • Used to control the flow of gases in and out of the vacuum chamber.
    • Different types of valves may include gate valves, ball valves, butterfly valves, etc., depending on the application.
  6. Filters and Traps:
    • Used to remove contaminants from the system and protect the vacuum pump.
    • Examples include oil mist filters, cold traps, particle filters, etc.
  7. Venting and Exhaust Systems:
    • Necessary for safely venting gases or exhaust from the system, particularly if they are hazardous or contain toxic elements.
  8. Gas Inlet and Outlet Ports:
    • Required for introducing or extracting gases from the vacuum chamber.
  9. Safety Features:
    • Emergency shut-off systems and pressure relief valves to prevent over-pressurization and protect against potential hazards.
  10. Control and Monitoring System:
    • Includes instruments and controls for regulating the vacuum level, temperature, and other process parameters.
  11. Power Supply:
    • Provides electrical power to the vacuum pump, valves, and any other electrically-powered components.
  12. Supporting Infrastructure:
    • Cooling systems for dissipating heat generated by the vacuum pump.
    • Gas supplies if the process requires specific gases to be introduced into the chamber.
  13. Compliance with Standards and Regulations:
    • Depending on the application, the vacuum system may need to adhere to specific industry or safety standards.
  14. Maintenance and Service Plan:
    • Regular maintenance and service schedules to ensure the system’s longevity and performance.
  15. Documentation and Record Keeping:
    • Comprehensive documentation of system components, specifications, maintenance records, and any modifications or upgrades made over time.